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axial piston engines

    Axial piston motors - for high speeds

    Functionality of axial piston motors

    Axial piston motors are based on the basic principle of an axial piston pump. The main feature of this motor type is the axis-parallel arrangement of the pistons in a cylinder drum around the axis of rotation. The pistons are supported on a plane lying at an angle to the axis of rotation of the cylinder drum, which creates their stroke. There are two main designs, the swash plate and the bent axis motors.


    Bent-axis design

    At the “inlet” of the piston drum, pressurized oil is supplied to the engine. As a result, the pistons make a lifting movement. This is converted into a rotary movement by the piston joint on the drive flange. The cylinder is carried along by the pistons and an output torque is generated at the output shaft. The hydraulic oil that emerges flows back into the hydraulic system.

    Since it is an axial piston motor with a constant displacement, the swivel angle is specified and thus fixed. With an adjustable motor, this angle can be adjusted within certain limits. Changing the swivel angle results in a different piston stroke and thus an adjustable displacement. In the case of an axial piston motor in bent-axis design, the output speed is proportional to the inflowing liquid volume.

    Axialkolbenmotor in Schrägachsenbauweise
    Swash plate design

    In the case of axial piston motors with a swash plate design, the displacement pistons are arranged axially to the output shaft. They support themselves on a sloping disc.

    In this design, too, pressurized fluid is fed in at the inlet of the piston drum. The pistons perform a lifting and rotating movement, taking the cylinder with them, which then rotates the output shaft due to the gearing. The hydraulic fluid is “pushed out” on the low-pressure side and fed back into the hydraulic system.

    Axialkolbenmotor in Schraegscheibenbauweise
    Advantages and disadvantages of axial piston engines


    • Axial piston motors are high-speed hydraulic motors . There are high speeds (> 10,000 rpm) can be reached
    • High pressure resistance, sometimes up to 450 bar
    • High volumetric efficiency
    • Lots of adjustment options
    • Very well suited for hydrostatic travel drives
    • Can be used in open or closed hydraulic circuits


    • Relative expensive
    • Susceptible to wear (cavitation)
    Fields of application of the axial piston motor

    Axial piston motors are extremely versatile hydraulic drive units that play an important role in various industries and applications. Here are some areas where these motors are commonly used:

    • Hydrostatic travel drives: Axial piston motors are particularly popular in agricultural, construction and industrial vehicles. Their ability to reach high speeds and perform stroke rotation makes them an ideal choice for these applications.
    • Hydraulic systems: In hydraulic systems where precise power control is required, axial piston motors are used in pumps and motors. They enable the generation of the desired power and movement in plants and machines.
    • Industrial applications: Axial piston motors are used in a wide range of industrial applications, including conveyors, conveyor systems and production machinery. They provide efficient movement and control in production environments.
    • Mobile applications: These engines are used in mobile applications such as construction equipment, agricultural equipment, truck cranes and aerial lifts. They provide the performance and precision required for these demanding tasks.
    • Open and closed hydraulic circuits: A major advantage of axial piston motors is their adaptability for both open and closed hydraulic circuits. This allows a wide range of applications in different systems.
    • High speeds: Because of their ability to reach high speeds, axial piston motors are extremely useful in applications with fast movement and high operating speed.
    • High pressure resistance: These motors are characterized by their high pressure resistance, which makes them ideal for high pressure applications, such as in the construction and mining industries.

    Overall, axial piston motors are widely used in a wide range of industries and applications due to their versatility and performance. However, the choice of motor depends on the specific requirements and needs of the particular system.

    Do you want to buy axial piston motors?

    Then visit our hydraulic shop right away. There you will find a large selection of axial piston motors in bent axis and swash plate designs.

    Hydromot Team
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